Health problems and health care seeking behavior among adult backpackers while traveling in Thailand
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 17 April 2016
Accepted: 21 June 2016
Published: 22 June 2016
Health problems among travelers in developing countries are not uncommon. Little is known about the occurrence of health problems and their impacts among backpackers in Thailand. The objective of this study was to assess the health problems and the health seeking behavior among adult backpackers who visited Thailand.
This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Data were collected from foreign adult backpackers in Khao San Road, Bangkok. They were asked about their demographic data, health problems (if any), and health-care seeking behavior if they became ill.
During May to July 2015, 420 backpackers were enrolled in this study. Of these, 51.4 % were male with a median age of 26.4 years. Up to 66.9 % were of European origin, while 17.4 % were North American. Fifty-eight percent sought pre-travel consultation before traveling. In this study, 10.2 % (43/420) of the participants reported at least health problem during travel. Most of them (79.1 %) had single episode of illness. Of this, diarrhea was the most common health problem (30.4 %), followed by abdominal pain (14.3 %), skin problems (8.9 %), respiratory problems (8.9 %), accident-associated injury (7.1 %), and febrile illness (7.1 %). One third of backpackers with health problems spontaneously recovered without any treatment, while nearly a quarter treated themselves with standby medication, and one in five had to buy over the counter medication. Just over 9 % of backpackers with a health problem sought medical care at a hospital. Among travellers with health problems, 72.1 % reported that their health problems did not significantly impact to their trip, while 23.3 % had to delay or postpone their trip for at least 1 day, and 4.7 % had to cancel some trip and/or activity. Longer duration of stay was significantly related to higher occurrence of health problems while traveling.
Approximately 10 % of adult backpackers experienced some health problems during their trip in Thailand. Although most of their health problems were mild, up to 22 % of backpackers with health problems need to seek medical care either in a clinic or in a hospital.
Thailand is one of the main tourist destinations in Southeast Asia and the number of tourists continues to grow. According to the UNWTO (United Nation – World Tourism Organization), 19 million foreigners visited Thailand in 2010 and the number increased to 25 million in 2014 . Unfortunately, in the same year (2014), there were 41,061 foreigners who were reported ill according to the reports from the Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health of Thailand . Based on these numbers, the prevalence of notifiable health problems was 2.1 per 1000 travelers. However, it is clear that the true incidence of health problems is likely much higher since these numbers were based on the surveillance report from health care facilities throughout Thailand and likely under captures health care events. Unfortunately, this surveillance system is not designed to capture mild or self-limiting health problems.
Although several studies have reported the incidence of health problems among travelers in Thailand, they focused only on specific health problems such as diarrhea and animal bites [3–5]. These studies did not describe the true magnitude and impact of the variety of likely health problems encountered among travelers to Thailand. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and spectrum of health problems among backpackers in Thailand. We also aimed to assess their practices and the impact of health problem during their trips.
This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. Data were collected from foreign backpackers in the Khao San Road area, a famous backpacker center in Bangkok, Thailand. Eligible participants were adult backpackers (aged ≥ 18 years), who could understand and were willing to complete the English language questionnaire. Foreign expatriates living or working in Thailand were excluded. A convenience sampling method was used in data collection. The investigator team invited any backpackers who was readily available in the study area. Verbal consent was obtained. Eligible participants were invited to complete the anonymous study questionnaire which was comprised of three parts including the demographic information and health problems during travel, practices of seeking medical care, and the impact of health problems to their trips.
Sample size was calculated by using the estimated number of backpackers in the Khao San Road area during the data collection period  and the Taro Yamane Standard sample size table . In order to achieve 95 % confidential interval, at least 381 participants were required. Therefore, we planned to collect 400 questionnaires in this study.
All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA). Continuous data were presented as mean with SD (for normally distributed data) or median with range (for non-normal distributed data). Categorical data were presented as numbers and percentage. The Student’s t-test was used to compare means of two groups, while the chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used for categorical data, as appropriate. A p-value of < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.
Baseline characteristics of the study population
Median age (years) (range)
26.4 (18–68 years)
Australian & New Zealander
VFR (Visiting friends and relatives)
Pre-travel counseling before this trip
Health problem during the trip
More than 3 episodes
Health problems among backpackers in Thailand
Spectrum of health problems among participants
Health problems (n = 56)
URI (Upper respiratory tract infection)
Skin problem and wound
Fever (Dengue, n = 1)
Management of health problems and its impact
Management of health problems and its impacts
Management of health problem (n = 54)
Spontaneous recovery without medication
Took their own medication
Bought over-the-counter medication
Visited a doctor in a clinic
Visited a doctor in a hospital
Admitted to a hospital
Impacts of health problems to the trip (n = 43)
No significant impact
Had to postpone some trips/activities
Had to cancel some trips/activities
Comparison of participants with health problem group and healthy group
Comparison between participants with health problems and healthy group
With health problems (n = 43)
Healthy (n = 377)
Mean age (years)
Duration of stay (days)
21 (9.7 %)
195 (90.3 %)
22 (10.8 %)
182 (89.2 %)
2 (4.5 %)
42 (95.5 %)
41 (10.9 %)
335 (89.1 %)
42 (10.4 %)
360 (89.6 %)
1 (5.6 %)
17 (94.4 %)
29 (11.8 %)
216 (88.2 %)
14 (8.0 %)
161 (92.0 %)
Cumulative attack rate of any health problems and GI(Gastrointestinal) problems
Duration of stay in SEA
Cumulative attack rate
Any health problems
Up to 7 days
Up to 14 days
Up to 21 days
Up to 28 days
All duration of stay (1–150 days)
In our study, 10.2 % of backpackers developed some sort of health problem in Thailand during an average stay of 10 days. This prevalence seems to be low when compared to other previous studies that showed the self-reported illness rate between 25–70 % among travelers in developing countries [5, 8–10]. It was not possible to compare our illness rate directly with other previous studies since there were major differences in terms of population studied, trip characteristic, destination, and duration of stay. However, several important points were noted. Firstly, most of the previous studies collected the data when travelers had already finished their trip not during the trips as was described in this study. So the average duration of stay in those studies were much longer. In a study among Israeli travelers, reported the illness rate up to 70 % in the average stay of 3.5 months . A study in Germany reported a 42.9 % illness rate among returning travelers with an average trip duration of 23.9 days . While in our study, we reported a health problem rate of 10.2 % during 10 days stay. Had we survey travelers at the end of their trip (average planned duration of 26 days), the health problem rate would have been considerably higher.
In our study, travelers’ diarrhea was the most common health problem found in participants. It was similar to other previous studies conducted among travelers returning from Southeast Asia [5, 10, 11]. However, the attack rate of diarrhea among travelers in Thailand seems to be lower over time. In 2009, we reported a 30.7 % attack rate of diarrhea among backpackers in Thailand . While in 2011, we conducted an airport study (n = 7894), the attack rate of diarrhea was 16.1 % in the average stay of 28 days . In the current study the attack rate of diarrhea was only 4 % during an average stay of 10 days. Although this is not conclusive evidence, it might suggest a decreasing trend. Our observation is not unique; several studies including a large cohort study have also reported a substantial lower attack rate of travelers’ diarrhea in many parts of the world .
As found in several studies, most illness episodes among travelers were mild with spontaneous recovery [5, 9, 14]. Only 2.14 % (9/420) of our participants required a doctor visit either in a clinic or a hospital during their trip, and one case needed to be hospitalized due to dengue infection. Although the attack rate of dengue in our study was not high, it cannot be neglected in pre-travel counseling for travelers to Southeast Asia, where it is still an important threat and fatal cases among travelers are occasionally reported [15, 16]. In this study, pre-travel counseling rate among backpackers was 59 %. It was relatively similar to previous study in Khao San Road area in 2012 .
This study had several limitations. First, we collected data among backpackers while travelling and their average duration of stay was only 10 days in Thailand and thus it was no possible to capture the whole spectrum of diseases, especially those with longer incubation period such as malaria or hepatitis. Because of our sampling method we were not able to estimate per-trip attack rates. However, we may potentially, represent the early health problems that occur in the first 10 days, and this could be considered as a strength. Since we collected after they have finished their trips, it would be much more difficult for them to recall some health problems they developed especially minor problems such as hangover that was reported in our study.
Second, the data was collected exclusively among backpackers in the Khao San Road area. Data from any single site could not represent the total population of backpackers who might stay in different areas and might have different travelling patterns or exposures. However, Khao San Road is a hub and it is the most famous backpacker center in Thailand. Thus, results from this area could give us some insight about risk and health seeking behavior practices.
Approximately 10 % of backpackers experienced some health problems during their first 10 days in Thailand. Although most of their health problems were mild and recovered spontaneously, up to 22 % of backpackers with health problems needed to seek medical care in either a clinic or a hospital.
UNWTO, United Nation – World Tourism Organization; URI, upper respiratory tract infection; VFR, visiting friends and relatives
We would like to thanks Ms. Thitiya Ponam and all residents/hospitalists in Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Thailand for their help during data collection.
This study was funded by the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University. The funder had no role in study design, analysis, or preparation of the manuscript.
Availability of data and supporting materials
The raw data as well as the questionnaire used in this study are available at the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University. The corresponding author can be contacted via email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The concept and the design of the study were performed by CM, WM, JO, WP. WM, PP, NK, NC, JO participated in data collection. CM, WP supervised data collection. CM, WM, JO, WP participated in data analysis and interpretation. This manuscript was prepared by CM, WP and critically revised by WM, PP, NK, NC, JO. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study protocol, as well as the questionnaire, were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Approval Number: 2015-017-01). Since this study was an anonymous survey among adults, the Ethics Committee waived the written consent and approved the study with the implication that filling the questionnaire represented consent to participate. No participant identifiable data was recorded in the questionnaire to maintain confidentiality.
This study, in part, was presented as a poster (APTHC-0030) at the Asia Pacific Travel Health Conference (11th APTHC), Kathmandu, Nepal, 2-5 May 2016.
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