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Table 4 Clinical management and outcomes of travelers’ diarrhea

From: Impact of pre-travel consultation on clinical management and outcomes of travelers’ diarrhea: a retrospective cohort study

  Pre-travel consultationa p valueb
Yes (n = 256) No (n = 904)
1st health care encounter
Primary Care 73 (29) 348 (39)  
Infectious Disease (ID) 39 (15) 38 (4) < 0.0001
Emergency/Urgent Care 32 (13) 137 (15)  
Other Specialtyc 13 (5) 89 (10)  
Non-Visit Cared 99 (39) 292 (32)  
ID consultation 86 (34) 82 (9) < 0.0001
Stool sample 134 (52) 331 (37) < 0.0001
Pathogens found 34/134 (25) 80/331 (24) 0.8
Microbiology:
Campylobacter 10/34 (29) 28/80 (35) 0.6
Escherichia coli 5/34 (15) 17/80 (21) 0.4
Salmonella 5/34 (15) 17/80 (21) 0.4
Shigella 2/34 (6) 3/80 (4) 0.6
Giardia 6/34 (18) 6/80 (8) 0.1
Post-travel antimicrobial prescribede 187 (73) 563 (62) 0.002
Clostridium difficile infection after antimicrobials 4/187 (2) 9/563 (2) 0.6
Hospitalization 17 (7) 53 (6) 0.6
Number of hospital days 1 (1–2) 2 (1–4) 0.02
Short-term complications 32 (13) 100 (11) 0.5
Diarrhea lasting > 4 weeks 50 (20) 155 (17) 0.4
Gastroenterology consultation 13/50 (26) 85/155 (55) 0.0004
  1. aCategorical variables are expressed as numbers (%). Continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range). IQR interquartile range from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile
  2. bP values were calculated based on Pearson’s chi-square test for categorical variables
  3. cOther specialties included gastroenterology, endocrinology, cardiology, transplant, surgery, etc
  4. dNon-visit care included telephone calls or patient online correspondence between patients and providers
  5. ePost-travel antimicrobials were prescribed either empirically or based on microbiology results, if available. Common post-travel antimicrobials included azithromycin and ciprofloxacin