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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Assessment of the agreement between the Framingham and DAD risk equations for estimating cardiovascular risk in adult Africans living with HIV infection: a cross-sectional study

  Overall (n = 452) Women (n = 361) Men (n = 91) p
General characteristics
 Mean age (years) 44.4 ± 9.8 43.7 ± 9.9 47.2 ± 8.8 0.001
 Unmarried, n (%) 251 (55.5) 227 (62.9) 24 (26.4) <0.001
 Secondary education or higher, n (%) 289 (63.9) 227 (62.9) 62 (68.1) 0.351
 Urban residence, n (%) 381 (84.3) 305 (84.5) 76 (83.5) 0.820
 Unemployed, n (%) 219 (48.5) 196 (54.3) 23 (25.3) <0.001
 Family past history of premature CVD, n (%) 46 (10.2) 36 (10.0) 10 (11.0) 0.774
 Tobacco use, n (%) 27 (6.0) 10 (2.8) 17 (18.7) <0.001
HIV infection
 Antiretroviral (ART) use, n (%) 400 (88.5) 328 (90.9) 72 (79.1) 0.002
 Median duration ART in months (25th-75th percentile) 72 (35–108) 72.0 (34.0-108.0) 74.0 (36.0 – 106.5) 0.971
 First line treatment, n (%) 373/400 (93.3) 304/328 (92.7) 69/72 (95.8) 0.442
 NVP (NNRTI)-based ART, n (%) 78/373 (20.9) 67/304 (22.0) 11/69 (15.9) 0.261
 EFV (NNRTI)-based ART, n (%) 295/373 (79.1) 237/304 (78.0) 58/69 (84.1) 0.261
 PI-based ART, n (%) 27/400 (6.8) 24/328 (7.3) 33/72 (4.2) 0.442
Clinical characteristics
 Mean systolic Blood pressure (mmHg) 123.4 ± 22.5 122.6 ± 23.0 126.5 ± 20.3 0.120
 Mean diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.3 ± 13.5 81.3 ± 13.6 81.1 ± 13.2 0.909
 Hypertension, n (%) 60 (13.3) 48 (13.3) 12 (13.2) 0.978
 Mean body mass index (kg/m2) 25.8 ± 5.3 26.2 ± 5.5 24.0 ± 3.9 <0.001
 Obesity, n (%) 218 (48.0) 188 (52.1) 29 (31.9) 0.001
 Mean waist circumference (cm) 82.1 ± 11.6 82.3 ± 11.9 81.0 ± 10.5 0.303
 Abdominal obesity, n (%) 195 (43.1) 185 (51.2) 10 (11.0) <0.001
 Mean hip circumference (cm) 95.1 ± 11.2 96.0 ± 12.0 91.4 ± 8.8 0.001
 Mean waist/hip ratio 0.86 ± 0.07 0.88 ± 0.07 0.89 ± 0.06 <0.001
Biological characteristics
 Median CD4 count (cells/mm3) 375 (245–532) 375 (245–532) 365 (257–504) 0.926
 Mean fasting glycaemia (mmol/L) 5.1 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 0.7 5.2 ± 1.3 0.236
 Diabetes, n (%) 9 (2.0) 6 (1.7) 3 (3.3) 0.318
 Mean total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.5 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 1.0 4.3 ± 1.1 0.238
 Hypercholesterolaemia, n (%) 26 (5.8) 22 (6.1) 4 (4.4) 0.534
 Mean HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.7 ± 0.6 1.7 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.6 0.003
 Low HDL, n (%) 106 (23.5) 85 (23.5) 21 (23.1) 0.925
 Mean triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.0 ± 0.5 1.0 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.6 0.012
 Hypertriglyceridaemia, n (%) 35 (7.7) 25 (6.9) 10 (11.0) 0.195
 Mean LDLcholesterol (mmol/L) 2.3 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 1.0 0.788
 High LDL cholesterol, n (%) 17 (3.8) 13 (3.6) 4 (4.4) 0.722
 Any dyslipidemia, n (%) 153 (33.8) 122 (33.8) 31 (34.1) 0.961
Median 5-year CVD risk
 DAD equation 0.6% (0.3-1.3) 0.5% (0.3-0.9) 1.4% (0.8-2.7) <0.001
 Framingham equation 0.7% (0.2-2.0) 0.5% (0.2-1.5) 1.8% (0.9-4) <0.001
  1. Values are count (percentages), mean ± standard deviation or median (25th-75th percentiles)
  2. ART antiretroviral therapy, EFV Efavirenz, HDL high density lipoproteins, LDL low density lipoproteins, NNRTs non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NRTIs nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NVRP Nevirapine