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Table 3 Molecular Techniques used for Listeria Characterization in Africa

From: Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria species from selected African countries

Country Molecular Techniques Gene/Serogroup/Strain Reference
South Africa Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST)
Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP)
ST6 [25]
South Africa
South Africa Genome Assembly
Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST)
ST6 [6]
South Africa Whole Genome Sequencing ST1, ST121, ST204, and ST876 [40]
Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI)
PHAge Search Tool Enhanced Release (PHASTER)
Nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (NCBI-BLASTn)
Serogroup 4b (lineage I)
Serogroup 1/2a (lineage II)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) inlJ, ipa, inlB, inlC, and inlA
South Africa Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) iap, actA, and plcA [35]
South Africa Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, actA, hlyA, plcA, plcB, and iap [9]
Nigeria Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) ST5, ST155, CT2050 and CT2051 [37]
Nigeria Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) hlyA and iap [41]
Nigeria Multiplex PCR assay (mPCR) prfA, inlA, hlyA, actA, and iap [42]
16S rRNA - based Phylogenetic Analysis NGA 34A, NGA 35A, NGA 41A, and NGA 38A
Nigeria Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) hylA [13]
Ghana PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene and listeriolysin O gene; Multiplex PCR for serotyping 1/2a-3a, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e and 1/2c-3c [17]