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Table 1 analysis of production costs linked to the development of different vaccines [10]

From: Vaccine market and production capabilities in the Americas

Costs Cost range
Product development > 500 M USD
Facilities and Equipment 50 to 700 M USD
Direct Labor Typically, less than 25% of the total manufacturing cost
Overhead Up to 45% of the cost of raw materials and labor
Licensing/Regulatory and commercialization Simple vaccine:
- Evaluation fee of 25 to 100 K, and Annual fees of 4.8 K to 140 K USD
Combo or Novel Vaccines:
- Evaluation fee of 66.5 to 232.8 K USD, and Annual fees of 8.4 to 250 K USD