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Table 5 Principal issues affecting patients with comorbidities during COVID-19 pandemic

From: COVID-19 in adult patients with pre-existing chronic cardiac, respiratory and metabolic disease: a critical literature review with clinical recommendations

Health issue Comorbidities Impact of COVID-19
Predisposition to severe disease Obesity More severe symptoms of COVID-19; requirement for complex ICU management; poorer clinical outcomes
Diabetes Increased clinical severity and mortality
Access to routine medical care COPD Cancellation of smoking cessation clinics
Cystic fibrosis Decreased access to multidisciplinary care and transplantation
Cancer Necessity to defer chemotherapy in some cases
Chronic kidney disease Infection risk in dialysis units; decreased access to renal transplantation
Mental health disorders Barriers to accessing outpatient care
Influence of chronic medications Hypertension Controversy around use of RAAS blockers
Autoimmune disease Immunosuppressant drugs predispose to infection
Chronic kidney disease Immunosuppressant drugs predispose to infection
Negative effects of pandemic lockdown Obesity Restrictions on physical activity; excessive caloric intake
Mental health disorders Social isolation; heightened anxiety; sleep disturbance; reduced capacity of psychotic patients to adhere to public health advice
  1. ICU Intensive care unit, COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, RAAS Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system