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Table 2 Summary of some drugs that can be repurposed for management of COVID-19

From: Battling COVID-19: using old weapons for a new enemy

Name Mechanism of action In-vitro studies In-vivo studies
SARS MERS SARS-CoV-2 Others SARS MERS SARS-CoV-2 Others
Alisporivir Cyclophilin mediated inhibition of viral replication Completely blocked replication [10]. Inhibit cytopathic effect of virus in cell culture [10]. No studies HCoV-229E [11], hepatitis C [12], hepatitis B [13], flaviviruses [14] Not effective in mouse model [10] No animal model studies No studies Effective in HCV
Arbidol (Umifenovir) Intercalation into membrane lipids- inhibition of membrane fusion [15] In-vitro effectiveness No studies In-vitro effectiveness Influenza, Hepatitis C, Flaviviruses [15] No studies No studies Combined arbidol and LPV/r better than LPV/r alone [16] Prophylaxis and treatment of influenza [15]
Auranofin [17, 18] Cellular oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory No studies No studies In-vitro effective HIV No studies No studies No studies No studies
Doxycycline Chelation of matrix metalloproteinase [19]
Anti-inflammatory
No studies No studies In-vitro effective [20] Dengue, Chikungunya, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, HIV No studies No studies No studies Dengue [21]
Isoprinosine or Inosine-pranobex Immunomodulatory drug with antiviral activity [22, 23] No studies No studies No studies Influenza, parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus [22,23,24,25] No studies No studies No studies Animal and human studies- influenza [25,26,27,28,29]
Interferon Immunomodulatory action leading to antiviral state Potent antiviral effects seen [30, 31]. Effective in inhibiting cytopathogenic effects [32]. No studies Effective in inhibiting SARS related CoV [33] Not effective [34]. Animal model suggests benefit [35] but Clinical data does not [36, 37]. No studies  
Nitric oxide donor compounds* Inhibits viral replication Inhibits replication of SARS virus [38] No studies No studies Japanese encephalitis [39] and flaviviruses [40] InhaledNO improved arterial in patients with SARS [41] No studies No Studies Decreased severity of Coxsackie myocarditis [42]
Oseltamavir Neuraminidase inhibitor Not effective [31] No studies No studies Influenza No studies No studies No studies Influenza
Teicoplanin Inhibits viral entry via by inhibiting the enzymatic action of Cathepsin L [43]. Blocks viral entry [43] Blocks viral entry [43] Blocks viral entry [44]. Ebola [43], HCV [45], Flaviviruses, Influenza, HIV [46,47,48] No studies No studies No studies No studies
  1. *Includes inhaled NO, S-Nitroso N acetyl penicillamine, Glycyrrhizin