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Table 1 Summary of clinical studies of significance of certain important drugs used for treatment of COVID-19

From: Battling COVID-19: using old weapons for a new enemy

Study Number of patients Type of study Patient population Study arms Results Ref
Hydroxychoroquine
Gautret et al., France 36 Single arm trial All positive cases HCQ-20, No HCQ- 16 Virological clearance on Day 6–70% in HCQ vs 12.5% in controls (p = 0.001) [3]
Tang et al., China 150 Multi-centric open labelled randomized controlled trial All positive cases 75- HCQ, 75- No HCQ No difference in virological conversion rate at day28 (p = 0.341). There was no difference in improvement in clinical symptoms at day 10. [4]
Mahevas et al., France 181 Multi-centric retrospective study All positive cases with pneumonia 84-HCQ, 97- no HCQ No difference in worse clinical outcomes (transfer to ICU within 7 days and/or death) between the two arms (RR- 0.93) [5]
Magagnoli et al., USA 368 Retrospective case control study All positive veterans HCQ- 97, HCQ + azithromycin- 113, no HCQ- 158 Risk of death was found to be higher in those patients who received HCQ alone compared to no HCQ (p = 0.003) [6]
Lopinavir/ritonavir
Cao et al., China 199 Randomized open labelled trial All positive patients with respiratory illness LPV/r- 99
No LPV/r- 100
Did not show any decrease in time to clinical improvement, mortality or viral load after addition of LPV/r [7]
Remdisivir
Grein et al., Multinational study 53 Multi-centric single-arm study Patients with oxygen saturation of less than 94% No control arm Improvement in oxygen support class was demonstrated in 68% of the patients [8]
Tocilizumab
Roumier et al., France 30 Case control study Patients (< 80 years of age) with severe disease who were rapidly deteriorating Controls matched for age and severity Lesser ICU admission and requirement of mechanical ventilation when compared to controls (matched for age and severity) [9]