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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted relative risk ratios for travelling to Germany and UK compared with other treatment destinations as a reference group based on the first trip among patients treated overseas from the United Arab Emirates through Dubai Health Authority during 2009–2016

From: Treatment destinations and visit frequencies for patients seeking medical treatment overseas from the United Arab Emirates: results from Dubai Health Authority reporting during 2009–2016

Independent Variables Germany UK
RRR* 95% CI P-value RRR* 95% CI P-value
Age group
 0–4 yrs. old 1.00 1.00
 5–12 yrs. old 0.76 (0.55, 1.06) 0.103 0.41 (0.29, 0.57) < 0.001
 13–18 yrs. old 1.02 (0.70, 1.50) 0.917 0.46 (0.31, 0.69) < 0.001
 19–39 yrs. old 0.78 (0.58, 1.05) 0.107 0.24 (0.18, 0.32) < 0.001
 40–54 yrs. old 0.68 (0.50, 0.92) 0.013 0.16 (0.12, 0.22) < 0.001
 55–69 yrs. old 0.58 (0.43, 0.79) < 0.001 0.10 (0.07, 0.14) < 0.001
 70+ yrs. old 0.70 (0.50, 0.97) 0.031 0.11 (0.08, 0.17) < 0.001
Gender
 Female 1.00 1.00   
 Males 0.91 (0.81, 1.03) 0.134 0.78 (0.67, 0.91) 0.002
Travel Season
 Summer 1.00 1.00
 Fall 1.04 (0.88, 1.22) 0.673 1.02 (0.83, 1.25) 0.857
 Winter 0.68 (0.57, 0.80) < 0.001 0.88 (0.72, 1.08) 0.234
 Spring 1.12 (0.95, 1.32) 0.176 1.11 (0.91, 1.37) 0.309
Medical Specialty
 Orthopedic Surgery 1.00 1.00
 Internal Medicine: Oncology 0.26 (0.20, 0.32) < 0.001 0.87 (0.63, 1.22) 0.441
 Neurosurgery 0.68 (0.54, 0.86) < 0.001 0.57 (0.38, 0.86) 0.007
 Ophthalmology 0.08 (0.06, 0.11) < 0.001 0.57 (0.40, 0.82) 0.002
 Neurology 1.28 (0.95, 1.73) 0.111 2.07 (1.34, 3.18) < 0.001
 General Surgery 0.67 (0.50, 0.90) 0.008 1.52 (1.01, 2.30) 0.047
 Internal Medicine: Cardiology 0.77 (0.57, 1.04) 0.090 2.93 (1.95, 4.40) < 0.001
 Obstetrics and Gynecology 0.54 (0.39, 0.75) < 0.001 2.18 (1.45, 3.28) < 0.001
 Unspecified Pediatrics 0.51 (0.33, 0.79) 0.002 1.49 (0.93, 2.36) 0.094
 Internal Medicine: Gastroenterology 0.73 (0.52, 1.03) 0.069 2.14 (1.35, 3.37) < 0.001
 Urology 0.93 (0.64, 1.37) 0.729 2.93 (1.81, 4.77) < 0.001
 Internal Medicine: Endocrinology 1.08 (0.71, 1.63) 0.731 3.36 (2.01, 5.60) < 0.001
 Internal Medicine: Nephrology 0.48 (0.33, 0.71) < 0.001 0.81 (0.43, 1.49) 0.493
 Not Specified Cases 0.04 (0.02, 0.07) < 0.001 0.31 (0.17, 0.57) < 0.001
 Un specified Internal Medicine 0.35 (0.24, 0.52) < 0.001 0.92 (0.52, 1.64) 0.782
 Other medical specialties 0.85 (0.68, 1.06) 0.139 2.20 (1.62, 2.99) < 0.001
  1. *Adjusted for age group, gender, travel season and medical specialty by using multinomial logistic regression as a model for analysis with other treatment destinations as a reference group