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Table 1 A summary of various experiments using the Salivary Gland as an immunization site

From: The salivary gland as a target for enhancing immunization response

Antigen IgA, saliva IgG, systemic Reference Model Notes
S. mutans
++++ ++++ [18] NHP SGid > SC; Greater IgA and IgG seen with SGid imzn than with SC imzn.
S. mutans
+++ +++ [21] NHP Greater IgA seen with SGid imzn than with SC imzn.
S. mutans
++++ ++++ [19] NHP SGid imzn resulted in semi-protection against a S. mutans challenge.
S. mutans
++++ +++ [20] NHP SGid immunization was strain specific.
Bovine serum albumin ++a ++a [13] Rats SGid; Moderate salivary and systemic antibody responses reported
Bovine serum albumin ++a +a [14] Rats Multiple SGid BSA imzns are followed by systemic antibodies.
MCMV, tcMCMV n.a. ++++ [33] Mice SGig imzn resulted in protection from viremia; IP imzn did not.
MCMV, tcMCMV +++ +++ [7] Mice SGig > IP; Greater IgA and IgG seen with SGig imzn than with IP imzn.
Adenovirus +++ ++++ [15] Rats SGid; Repeated pre-exposure to inactivated adenovirus induced immune tolerance.
tcMCMV +++ ++++ [34] Mice SGid imzn resulted in protection from a lethal challenge.
pDNA: fimbriae from P. ginigivalis ++++ +++ [23] Mice TSG > IM; Greater IgA seen with TSG imzn, than with IM imzn. TSG and IM imzns resulted in equal IgG.
pDNA: influenza NP protein n.c. +++ [24] Rats SGid; Included testing of two adjuvants.
pDNA: NP protein, hGH,
gp120, anthrax PA
++++ ++++ [25] Rats SGid > IM; Greater IgA and IgG seen with SGid imzn than with IM imzn. SG imzn protected from a lethal challenge; IM imzn did not; distal mucosal response seen.
pDNA: gp120 +++ +++ [27] Rats, dogs SGid > IM (ASCs from Peyer’s patches); distal mucosal IgA response seen in lungs.
  1. Abbreviations: SGid intraductal instillation of the salivary gland, SGig direct injection into the gland through a small incision, TSG targeted injection of the salivary gland, SC subcutaneous injection, IM intramuscular injection, IP intraperitoneal injection, imzn immunization, ASC antibody secreting cell, NHP non-human primate, MCMV murine cytomegalovirus, tcMCMV tissue-cultured MCMV (i.e., attenuated MCMV), anthrax PA anthrax protective antigen, hGH human growth hormone, gp120 HIV gp120, pDNA plasmid DNA, n.c. no change, n.a. not addressed. aAntibody response confounded by immunogen being present in animal chow, possibly inducing immune tolerance; see [15, 16]. Table compiled by searching the PubMed database on “instillation duct antibodies” or “intraductal instillation antibodies,” analyzing salient peer-reviewed reports and their references, then subjecting those reports to a citation tracking database (Web of Science®) and analyzing the resulting reports, which were also run through a citation tracking database, with the salient reports evaluated as well