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Table 1 Characteristics of ill returned travellers according to the region visited

From: Travellers returning ill from the tropics – a descriptive retrospective study

  All regions (% of total travellers) Latin America (LAM) North Africa Middle East (NAME) Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) South-east and South Asia (SESA) >1 area
Number of travellers 360 83 (23 %) 18 (5 %) 125 (35 %) 128 (36 %) 6 (2 %)
Female sex 212 (59 %) 51 (61 %) 13 (72 %) 75 (60 %) 68 (53 %) 5 (83 %)
Age Group (years)
 <30 155 (43 %) 44 (53 %) 8 (44 %) 57 (46 %) 42 (33 %) 4 (67 %)
 31 – 64 197 (55 %) 38 (45 %) 10 (56 %) 64 (51 %) 83 (65 %) 2 (33 %)
 >64 8 (2 %) 1 (1 %) - 4 (3 %) 3 (2 %) -
Duration of travel (days)
median in d 30 36 14 30 28 91
range in d (5 – 540) (6 – 420) (7 – 60) (5 – 540) (7 – 360) (12 – 191)
 ≤14 181 (50 %) 34 (41 %) 14 (78 %) 65 (52 %) 67 (52 %) 1 (17 %)
 31 – 90 78 (22 %) 24 (29 %) 1 (5 %) 21 (17 %) 31 (24 %) 1 (17 %)
 ≥91 79 (22 %) 22 (26 %) - 34 (27 %) 20 (16 %) 3 (50 %)
 Unknown 22 (6 %) 3 (4 %) 3 (17 %) 5 (4 %) 10 (8 %) 1 (17 %)
Travel Style
 Tourism 210 (58 %) 59 (71 %) 13 (72 %) 48 (38 %) 86 (67 %) 4 (67 %)
 Close contact to locals 30 (8 %) 4 (5 %) - 19 (15 %) 6 (5 %) 1 (17 %)
 Work or study 39 (11 %) 8 (10 %) 1 (6 %) 24 (19 %) 6 (5 %) -
 VFR 31 (9 %) 4 (5 %) 2 (11 %) 15 (12 %) 9 (7 %) 1 (17 %)
 Unknown 50 (14 %) 8 (10 %) 2 (11 %) 19 (15 %) 21 (16 %) -
Pre-travel health advice 242 (67 %) 60 (72 %) 2 (11 %) 92 (74 %) 82 (64 %) 6 (100 %)
Diarrhoea during journey 200 (56 %) 49 (59 %) 14 (78 %) 79 (63 %) 54 (42 %) 4 (67 %)
Self-reported fever during journey 124 (34 %) 24 (29 %) 5 (28 %) 58 (46 %) 36 (28 %) 1 (17 %)
Presentation because of gastrointestinal complaints 182 (51 %) 51 (61 %) 12 (67 %) 51 (41 %) 64 (50 %) 4 (67 %)
 Unspecific gastrointestinal disorder 129 (36 %) 35 (42 %) 12 (67 %) 32 (26 %) 47 (37 %) 3 (50 %)
 Giardiasis 21 (6 %) 4 (5 %) - 9 (7 %) 8 (6 %) -
 Amebiasis 14 (4 %) 5 (6 %) - 4 (3 %) 4 (3 %) 1 (17 %)
 Salmonellosis (non-typhoidal) 5 (1 %) 3 (4 %) - 1 (<1 %) 1 (<1 %) -
 Campylobacteriosis 2 (<1 %) - - 1 (<1 %) 1 (<1 %) -
 Shigellosis 4 (1 %) - - 3 (2 %) 1 (<1 %) -
 Cyclosporiasis cayetanensis 3 (<1 %) 2 (2 %) - - 1 (<1 %) -
 Typhoid fever 2 (<1 %) - - 1 (<1 %) 1 (<1 %) -
 Helminthiasis 2 (<1 %) 2 (2 %) - - - -
Presentation because of fever 98 (27 %) 17 (20 %) 2 (11 %) 42 (34 %) 36 (28 %) 1 (17 %)
 Upper respiratory tract infection 44 (12 %) 9 (11 %) 1 (6 %) 13 (10 %) 20 (16 %) 1 (17 %)
 Fever with no clinical focus 24 (7 %) 4 (5 %) - 15 (12 %) 5 (4 %) -
 Malaria 23 (6 %) 2 (2 %) - 14 (11 %) 7 (5 %) -
 Dengue fever 6 (2 %) 1 (1 %) 1 (6 %) - 4 (3 %) -
 Tuberculosis 1 (<1 %) 1 (1 %) - - - -
Medical assistance during journey 80 (22 %) 21 (25 %) 1 (6 %) 39 (31 %) 17 (13 %) 2 (33 %)