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Table 1 Possible mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in tuberculosis

From: Tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease: linking the epidemics

Direct effect on the myocardium (tuberculous myocarditis)
Direct effect on coronary arteries (tuberculous arteritis)
Increased expression of pro-inflammatory citokines (i.e., IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α)
Monocyte/macrophage immune activation
CD4+ TH1 and TH17 cell immune activation
Auto-immunity mediated by antibodies against mycobacterial HSP65
  1. Abreviations: HSP65 heat shock protein 65, IL interleukin, IFN interferon, TH1 T helper 1, TH17, T helper 17, TNF tumor necrosis factor