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Table 3 Differences in self-reported potential risk factors for HCV acquisition between HCV-positive and HCV-negative volunteers in Manshiet Nasser, 2003

From: A cross-sectional household cluster serosurvey of hepatitis C virus antibodies in an urban slum of Cairo, Egypt in 2004

Probable risk factors Anti-HCV*  
Positive Negative Crude P.R. Adjustedb
n(%) n(%) P.R. (95 % CI.)
n = (180)a n = (1989)a
Previous surgery 122/180 (68) 966/1989 (49) 2.1 1.3 (1.0–1.7)
Any medical procedure 95/176 (54) 588/1972 (30) 2.6 1.1 (0.8–1.4)
Previous dental work 139/180 (77) 993/1987 (50) 3.2 0.9 (0.7–1.3)
Ever received blood transfusion 23/176 (13) 57/1981 (3) 3.9 2.0 (1.5–2.8)*
Have any tattoos 103/180 (57) 927/1989 (47) 1.5 1.4 (1.1–1.9)**
Share razor blades 10/89 (11) 75/904 (8) 1.3 0.7 (0.4–1.3)
Go to the barber 89/89 (100) 858/893 (96) N/Ac N/Ac
Ever have abortion/deliveries 80/82 (97) 410/512 (80) 8.9 3.6 (0.8–16.0)
Received injection >10 injections 130/179 (73) 847/1986 (43) 3.4 1.5 (1.1–2.0)
Reuse of needles for injections 9/170 (5) 42/1681 (2) 2.0 1.0 (0.5–1.7)
Have ear/body piercing 92/180 (51) 1063/1988 (53) 0.9 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
Ever diagnosed of having Schistosomiasis 39/177 (22) 109/1967 (6) 3.8 1.5 (1.1–2.1)***
Have a family member has HCV 32/179 (18) 384/1960 (19) 0.9 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
Individual at work known to have HCV 11/168 (7) 104/1821 (6) 1.1 1.0 (0.6–1.6)
Never sort garbage with gloves 79/83 (95) 534/558 (96) 0.9 0.8 (0.4–1.7)
Ever come across medical waste while sorting 74/83 (89) 489/558 (88) 1.2 0.8 (0.5–1.4)
Ever stuck by any sharp object while sorting 77/83 (93) 494/558 (89) 1.6 1.0 (0.5–2.1)
  1. * p = <.0001
  2. ** p = <0.05
  3. *** p = <0.01
  4. aNumbers may not add up to (n) or (100 %) due to missing answers/eligibility to the question
  5. bAdjusted for age
  6. cNot applicable